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A B C D E F G H I J K L M
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A

Access Method
The technology that will be used to access the Internet (Dial-Up, ISDN, cable modem, DSL).

Address: The location of an Internet resource. email address may take form joeschmoe@somecompany.com. A web looks something like http://www.squareonetech.com.

Add-in: A mini program, which runs in conjunction with a web browser or other application that enhances the functionality of that program. In order for the add-in to run, the main application must be running as well.

ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Usually meant for home usage, this DSL service has a faster download speed and a slower upload speed. Download speeds may range from 256K to 7 Mbits.

Anonymous FTP: An anonymous FTP site allows Internet users to log in and download files from the computer without having a private userid and password. To login, you typically enter anonymous as the userid and your email address as the password.

Applet: A program that can be downloaded over a network and launched on the user's computer (see Java).

Anchor: Either the starting point or destination of a hyperlink. The letters at the top of this page are all anchors - clicking one takes you to another part of this page.

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A set of 128 alphanumeric and special control characters. ASCII files are also known as plain text files.

AU: (.au) - a common audio file format for UNIX systems.

AVI: Audio/Video Interleaved - a common video file format (.avi). quality can be very good at smaller resolutions but files tend to rather large.

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B

Bandwidth: A measurement of the volume of information that can be transmitted over a network at a given time. Think of a network as a water pipe - the higher the bandwidth (the larger the diameter of the pipe), the more data (water) can pass over the network (through the pipe). How much information you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits - per - second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 15,000 bits in one second.

Binary: The system by which combinations of 0s and 1s are used to represent any type of data stored on a computer.

Bitmap File: A common image format (.bmp) defined by a rectangular pattern of pixels.

BPS: Bits Per Second - a measurement of the volume of data that a modem is capable of transmitting. Typical modem speeds today are 14.4K bps (14,400 bits per second) and 28.8K bps. ISDN offers transfer rates of 128K bps.

Bookmark: A pointer to a particular Web site. Within browsers, you can bookmark interesting pages so you can return to them easily.

Broadband
Digital technologies that offer consumers a single way to access voice, high - speed data services, video services, and interactive information delivery services.

Browser: A program run on a client computer for viewing World Wide Web pages. Examples include Netscape, Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Mosaic.

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C

Cache: A region of memory where frequently accessed data can be stored for rapid access.

Cable Modem
A cable modem is a device that enables you to hook up your PC to a local cable TV line and receive data at about 1.5 Mbps. A cable modem can be added to or integrated with a set - top box that provides your TV set with channels for Internet access.

Central Office
Belonging to your local phone provider, this is the building that houses the phone equipment for your area, such as switches. DSL lines run from the customer's home to this office. It is the distance from this office that determines whether or not you can get DSL service in your home, and what speeds you qualify for. Usually, if you are within about 18,000 feet from the central office, you are able to get some form of DSL service.

CGI: Common Gateway Interface - the specification for how an HTTP server should communicate with server gateway applications.

Chat: A system that allows for online communication between Internet users. See IRC.

Client: A program (like a Web browser) that connects to and requests information from a server.

Commerce Server: Web software that runs some of the main functions of an online storefront such as product display, online ordering, inventory management. Works in conjunction with online payment systems to process payments.

Cookies: Snippets of information delivered from a Web site to the client's browser, and then stored on the hard drive. Examples are the time of the last visit, or the pages downloaded. "Cookies" can be read by that Web site on the next visit.

Client-Server Protocol: A communication protocol between networked computers in which the services of one computer (the server) are requested by the other (the client).

Compressed: Data files available for download from the Internet are typically compacted in order to save server space and reduce transfer times. Typical file extensions for compressed files include zip (DOS/Windows) and tar (UNIX).

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D

Dedicated Line
A communications circuit or channel for the exclusive use of a particular subscriber. For example, dedicated lines are used for computers when large amounts of data need to be moved between two points.

DES: Data Encryption Standard. A commonly used standard method used for Encrypting & Decrypting Data. Encryption is necessary as valuable & sensitive information is often sent from one computer to another via a network that technically can be accessed by anybody. It provides a degree of security should the information fall into the wrong hands. DES was developed by the U.S National Institute of Standards & Technology.

Dial-up Connection: A connection to the Internet via phone and modem. Connection types include PPP and SLIP. When using a modem and telephone to access the Internet. The standard type of Internet access for most people. Note that Dial-up access is not dedicated (meaning you cannot also talk on the phone) unless you purchase an additional phone line. The cost of this additional line is not included.

Digital Certificates: Digital Ids used to present credentials online. Digital certificates are issued by companies, which act as "trusted third parties." In a SET transaction, the buyer, the merchant and banks for these parties all have digital certificates.

Digital Wallet: Software that stays resident on the hard drive of an online shopper. When they are ready to make a purchase, the "wallet" pops open to reveal payment options. Some "wallets" hold credit cards with encrypted information. Other "wallets" hold digital coins.

Direct Connection: A connection made directly to the Internet - much faster than a dial-up connection.

DirecPC
Internet access that uses a satellite dish to receive data they request over the Internet. Outbound information (such as a URL request) is requested in the traditional way, usually via a dial - up connection.

Discussion Group: A particular section within the USENET system typically, though not always, dedicated to a particular subject of interest. Also known as a newsgroup.

Domain: The Internet is divided into smaller sets known as domains, including .com (business), .gov (government), .edu (educational) and others.

Domain Name: Allows you to reference Internet sites without knowing the true numerical address.

Download: The process of copying data file(s) from a remote computer to a local computer. The opposite action is upload where a local file is copied to a server.

DSL
A method for moving data over regular phone lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber's premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. A DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line. However, DSL uses previously unused frequencies of the line so that one may connect to the Internet and talk on the phone at the same time.

 

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E

EDI: is Electronic Data Interchange. EDI provides electronic formats, which allow for an exchange of business data between companies over networks.

Ethernet
A very common method of networking computers in a LAN. Ethernet will handle about 10,000,000 bits - per - second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.

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F

FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions - a collection of common questions and answers on a particular subject.

Firewall
A combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN into two or more parts for security purposes. Often used to separate an in - house LAN from the Internet.

Flame: An insulting message exchanged via email or within newsgroups. A series of flames are known as flame wars.

FreeWare: Software that is available for download and unlimited use without charge. Compare to shareware.

FTP: File Transfer Protocol - a set of rules for exchanging files between computers via the Internet.

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G

Gateway: Computer hardware and software that allow users to connect from one network to another.

GIF: Graphics Interchange Format - a common image format. Most images seen on web pages are GIF files.

G. Lite
A DSL service that offers a download speed that is slower than other forms (maximum of 1.5mbps). But, it is an ITU (International Telecommunications Union) standard, which means that DSL may soon be available from many vendors and may operate interchangeably. This may eliminate the need for multiple installation visits from providers.

Gopher: A system allowing users to search for files via menus or directory structures. Uses plain English names and is text based only.

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H

Helper Application: A program allowing you to view multimedia files that your web browser cannot handle internally, such as images, audio and video files. The file must be downloaded before it will be displayed/played. Plug-ins allow you to actually view the file over the Internet without downloading first.

HDSL
High bit - rate Digital Subscriber Line. Modems on either end of one or more twisted wire pair that deliver T1 speeds. This requires two lines at this point in time.

Home Page: The first page of a Web site. Also, the Web site that automatically loads each time you launch your browser.

Host: The name of a specific machine within a larger domain.

Hot Java: A Web browser developed by Sun Microsystems that takes full advantage of applets written in the Java programming language.

HTML: HyperText Markup Language - a collection of tags typically used in the development of Web pages.

HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol - a set of instructions for communication between a server and a World Wide Web client.

Hyperlink: A connection between two anchors. Clicking on one anchor will take you to the linked anchor. Can be within the same document/page or two totally different documents.

Hypertext: A document that contains links to other documents, commonly seen in Web pages and help files.

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I

IDSL  DSL transferred at 128 kbps on regular copper lines. This uses ISDN transmission coding, but no form of dial - up.

Information Superhighway/Infobahn: The terms were coined to describe a possible upgrade to the existing Internet through the use of fiber optic and/or coaxial cable to allow for high speed data transmission. This highway does not exist - the Internet of today is not an information superhighway.

IP Address: Internet Protocol Address - every computer on the Internet has a unique identifying number, like 191.1.24.2. If a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.

IRC: Internet Relay Chat - the system allowing Internet users to conduct online text based communication with one or more other users.

ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network - a system of all digital, high bandwidth telephone lines allowing for the simultaneous delivery of audio, video and data. Data travels at 128K bps. In practice, most people will be limited to 56Kbps or 64 Kbps.

ISP: Internet Service Provider - the company which provides you with a connection to the Internet via either a Dial-up Connection or a Direct Connection.

Issuing Bank: Issues the credit to a credit card holder. When sale authorization is requested, the merchant's bank, requests the funds to be transferred from the credit card company, which in turn receives the funds from the issuing bank.

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J

Java: A programming language originally developed at Sun Microsystems to create software for consumer electronic products. Java creates platform independent applications- it can run on any operating system.

Javascript: An object-based programming language that allows for the embedding of Java objects directly in an HTML page. Netscape 2.0 and all their subsequent browsers can interpret JavaScript.

JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group - a common image format. Most of the images you see embedded into Web pages are GIFs, but sometimes, especially in art or photographic Web sites, you can click on the image to bring up a higher resolution (larger) JPEG version of the same image.

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K

Killfile: Found within newsreaders, a list of undesirable authors or threads to filter out.

Knowbot: A system for finding Internet user's email addresses via their first and last names. Due to the rapid growth in the volume of email users, this system is not perfect.

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L

LAN: Local Area Network - a network of computers confined within a small area, such as an office building.

Link: Another name for a hyperlink.

Listserv: An electronic mailing list typically used by a broad range of discussion groups. When you subscribe to a listserv, you will receive periodic email messages about the topic you have requested.

Lurking: The act of reading through mail lists and newsgroups without posting any messages. Considered good netiquette to get the feel of the topic before adding your own two cents.

Lynx: A popular text (non-graphical) World Wide Web Browser.

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M

Mailing List: A list of email addresses to which messages are sent. You can subscribe to a mailing lists typically by sending an email to the contact address with the following in the body of the message: the word subscribe, the name of the list, and your email address.

Merchant Bank: When a credit card authorization is processed, the first stop is the bank where the online store has a merchant account. This bank is the merchant's bank.

MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface - a high quality audio file format.

MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a protocol for allowing email messages to contain various types of media (text, audio, video, images, etc.).

Mirror Site: An Internet site, setup as an alternate to a busy site; contains copies of all the files stored at the primary location.

Modem
Modulator - Demodulator. A device that converts digital signals onto analog signals and enables computers to receive data over telephone networks.

Mosaic: One of the first graphical World Wide Web browsers developed at NCSA.

MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group - a video file format offering excellent quality in a relatively small file. Video files found on the Internet are frequently stored in the MPEG format. Full-length movies (like Top Gun) are available on CD and are stored in the MPEG format.

Multimedia: A combination of media types on a single document, including: text, graphics, animation, audio and video

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N

Nameserver: A computer running a program that converts domain names into appropriate IP addresses and vice versa.

Netiquette: Emily Post meets the Internet. Short for Internet etiquette.

Newbie: A new Internet user. If you are reading this definition, you probably are one (or at least were one before you read this).

Newsgroup: A particular section within the USENET system typically, though not always, dedicated to a particular subject of interest. Also known as discussion groups.

Newsreader: A program designed for organizing the threads received from a mailing list or newsgroup.

NCSA: National Center for Supercomputing Applications - an organization headquartered at the University of Illinois. Researchers here created the Mosaic and HTTP server programs.

Network: A system of connected computers exchanging information with each other. A LAN is a relatively smaller form of a network in comparison to the Internet, a worldwide network of computers.

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O

Online: When you connect to the Internet, you are online.

Online Service: Services, which provide content to subscribers and usually connections to the Internet.

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P

Packet: A chunk of data. The TCP/IP protocol breaks large data files into smaller "packets" for transmission. When the data reaches its destination, the protocol makes sure that all packets have arrived without error.

Page: An HTML document, or Web site.

PING: Ping - a program for determining if another computer is presently connected to the Internet.

Pixel: Short for picture element - the smallest unit of resolution on a monitor. Commonly used as a unit of measurement.

Plug-In: A small application, which extends the built in capabilities of your Web browser. Examples include Macromedia's Shockwave, providing animation, and RealAudio, offering streamed sound files over the Internet. Compared to helpers, the multimedia files do not need to be downloaded before shown or played.

PKZIP: A widely available shareware utility allowing users to compress and decompress data files. Helps reduce storage space and transfer times.

POP: Post Office Protocol - a method of storing and returning email.

Post: To send a message to a mailing list or newsgroup.

PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol - a protocol for converting a dial-up connection to a point-to-point connection over the Internet. Frequently used for accessing the World Wide Web over phone lines. Considered more stable than a SLIP connection.

Protocol: An agreed upon set of rules by which computers exchange information.

Provider: An Internet Service Provider, or ISP.

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Q

Queue: A list of email messages that will be distributed next time you log onto the Internet.

QuickTime: A common video file format created by Apple Computer. Video files found on the Internet are often stored in the QuickTime format - they require a special viewer program for playback.

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R

RADSL
Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line. A version of ADSL where modems test the line at start - up and adapt their operating speed to the fastest the line can handle.

Register: With shareware, when you contact the vendor and pay for the product, you are registering. In return, you will receive either a password to turn off the nag notices or a copy of the full commercial version.

Robot: A program that automatically searches the World Wide Web for files.

Router
This is your connection between networks for DSL service. It keeps packets flowing from everywhere, directing traffic according to routing tables it has programmed in it.

RSA Encryption: Based on a public key system, which means that every user, has 2 digital keys - one to encrypt information, and the other to decrypt. Authentication of both sender and recipient is provided with this method.

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S

SDSL
Single Line DSL. Requires just one twisted line compared to other forms of DSL that might need two or three. It is also symmetric, which means that the maximum upstream and downstream speeds are the same.

Search Engine: A tool for searching information on the Internet by topic. Popular engines include InfoSeek, Inktomi and Web Crawler.

Server: One half of the client-server protocol, runs on a networked computer and responds to requests submitted by the client. Your World Wide Web browser is a client of a World Wide Web server.

SET: An acronym for the Secure Electronic Transaction protocol. It's a means for authenticating credit card purchases on the Net. Digital signatures are used by all parties. Transaction information is encrypted using 1024 bit RSA encryption.

SGML: Standard General Markup Language - a standard for markup languages. HTML is one version of HTML.

Shopping Cart: A piece of software that operates on an online storefront. The "shopping cart" keeps track of all the items that a buyer wants to purchase, allowing the shopper to pay for the whole order at once.

Shareware: Software that is available on a free limited trial basis. Sometimes this is a fully featured product, other times it lacks some of the features of the commercial version. If you find the product useful, you are expected to register the software, for which in return you will receive the full featured commercial version.

Signature: A personal tag automatically appended to an email message. May be short, such as the author's name, or quite long, such as a favorite quote.

SLIP: Serial Line Internet Protocol - a protocol allowing you to use a dial-up connection as an Internet connection. Similar to a PPP connection, though far less stable.

Smart Card: A credit card sized plastic card with an embedded microchip. The chip can be "recharged" with funds. The store of value on the card is debited as a transaction is made. The card can also store other ID information such as, health care details and security information.

SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - a protocol dictating how email messages are exchanged over the Internet.

SPAM: Non-Internet: Delicious "meat" in a can! Internet: Sending multiple, sometimes thousands, of unwelcome messages to a newsgroup or mailing list to promote a commercial product or Web site.

S-Mime encryption: Protects the privacy of email. If the sender and receiver both have email clients that support the S-Mime protocol, they can communicate with email that is secured.

SSL encryption: Was developed by Netscape to provide data encryption and authentication of servers or clients. SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer. It can be used for any functions on the Internet- FTP, Usenet or the Web.

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T

T1: A category of leased telephone line service, allowing transfer rates of 1.5 Mbps (megabytes per second) over the Internet. Too expensive for home users (around $2000 per month), but commonly found in business environments.

T-3
A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second.

TAR: Tape ARchive - a compression format commonly used in the transfer and storage of files residing on UNIX computers.

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - this protocol is the foundation of the Internet, an agreed upon set of rules directing computers on how to exchange information with each other. Other Internet protocols, such as FTP, Gopher and HTTP sit on top of TCP/IP.

Telnet: A protocol for logging onto remote computers from anywhere on the Internet.

Thread: An ongoing message based conversation on a single subject.

TIFF: Tag Image File Format - a popular graphic image file format.

Trolling: Deliberately posting false information in order to illicit responses from people who really want to help. A typical response might be, "No, Bart Simpson was NOT one of our founding fathers."

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U

UNIX: A powerful operating system used on the backbone machines of the Internet. World Wide Web servers frequently run on UNIX.

Upload: To copy a file from a local computer connected to the Internet to a remote computer. Opposite is download.

URL: Uniform Resource Locator - the method by which Internet sites are addressed. An example would be "http://www.squareone.com".

USENET: Short for User's Network. The collection of the thousands of bulletin boards residing on the Internet. Each bulletin board contains discussion groups, or newsgroups, dedicated to a myriad of topics. Messages are posted and responded to by readers either as public or private emails.

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V

Visit: Synonymous with viewing a World Wide Web site.

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W

WAIS: Wide Area Information Servers - a system of searchable text databases.

WAN: Wide Area Network - a system of connected computers spanning a large geographical area.

WAV: Waveform Audio (.wav) - a common audio file format for DOS/Windows computers.

WINSOCK: Winsock - a Microsoft Windows DLL file that provides the interface to TCP/IP services, essentially allowing Windows to use Web browsers, FTP programs, and others.

WWW: World Wide Web, or simply Web. A subset of the Internet which uses a combination of text, graphics, audio and video (multimedia) to provide information on most every subject imaginable.

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X

X-Pixelmap: An uncompressed color image file format (.xpm).

X-Bitmap: An uncompressed black and white image file format (.xbm).

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Z

ZIP: A compressed file format (.zip). Many files available on the Internet are compressed or zipped in order to reduce storage space and transfer times. To uncompress the file, you need a utility like PKZip (DOS) or WinZip (Windows).

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Copyright 1997 - 2010

Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
Other products and companies referred to herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or mark holders.
UPDATE 26-Feb-2010
MMC&S Inc.


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